From data collected at the Library of Congress. [Letter from Freud to Wilhelm Fliess about Dora case, 14 octobre 1900]
Scanned from the edition of S. Fisherman [From the early days of psychoanalysis 1887-1902] parue in 1975 pp 297-384. And allemand [Entwurf einer Psychologie]
11. 4. 06.
IX, Berggasse 191.
My honored colleague,
My heartfelt thanks for sending your Diagnostic Studies Association2, by whose impatience I had acquired. This is of course your last job, "Psychology and experience of association", that made me the greatest pleasure, since, relying on experience, you said that I did not say anything as true of hitherto unexplored areas of our discipline. I expect that you will certainly still often led me to confirm, and I find so readily corrected.
- Was simplified in this edition printed in the header (on paper 13,5 X 17 cm. (For the full header, see facsimile pl. 2). Freud uses a different header from the letter 52 F.
- Diagnostic Association Studies; Contributions to experimental psychopathology, flight. The, Leipzig, 1906. The book contains six works of Jung and other doctors of asylum cantonal and university clinic of Psychiatry in Zurich Burghölzli. Young, who ran the experiments, is also the editor. The works were first published in 1904. at 1906 in the Journal of Psychology and Neurology as separate items, followed 1906 at 1909 six other trials which appeared in 1909 combined in the second volume of Diagnostic studies. Jung's work, y compris " Psychoanalysis and association test », 1906, be found in the Collected Works, Rascher, Stuttgart et Zurich, 1966, flight. II. [Henceforth abbreviated, G. In. and Arabic numerals.] The first reference was made public by Freud Jung in June 1906 in a lecture at a seminar of jurisprudence from the University of Vienna : « Tatbestandsdiagnostik und Psychoanalyse » [ "Psychoanalysis and the establishment of the facts in judicial matters by a diagnostic method., in Tests applied psychoanalysis, Gallimard, 1971, p. 45] Archives of Criminal Anthropology and Criminology, XXVI, 1906 : « [These tests] only became meaningful and fruitful when Bleuler in Zurich and his students, especially Jung, began to deal with such "experiments of association". [Entire melte works, henceforth abbreviated G. In. and Roman numeral, VII, 4].
Burghölzli Zurich, 5. X. 1906 (1).
Receive the most dedicated my thanks for your kind sending. This collection of various small your written (2) should be highly welcome anyone who wants to assimilate quickly and thoroughly your view. Hopefully in the future will increase your scientific community constantly, despite the attacks that‘Aschaffenburg (3), applauded by the authorities, has brought to your teaching, we would almost say to your person. What is sad in these attacks, this is only my opinion Aschaffenburg clings to things outside, while the merits of your teaching are in the psychological, psychiatrists and psychologists modern observance dominate too little. I recently exchanged a lively correspondence (4) with Aschaffenburg about your education, and I have defended the view aforesaid, with which, honored Professor, you are perhaps not entirely agree. What I can estimate the range, and made us move here on psychopathology, what are your views psychological, while the genesis and treatment of hysteria are still, given the paucity of our material hysterical, quite far from my mind; that is to say, I think your treatment based not only on the effects of abreaction, but also some personal relationships (5), and the genesis of hysteria seems to be, of predominantly but not exclusively, sexual. I see the same attitude towards your theory of sexuality. Aschaffenburg, by relying exclusively on these delicate theoretical issues, forget the main, your psychology, where it is certain that one day psychiatry derive a profit inexhaustible. I hope soon to send you a little book (6) in which I consider your point of view, dementia praecox and psychology. I also published the first case (7) where I made Bleuler (8) attention to the existence of your principles, which still faced stiff resistance on his part. But as you know, Bleuler is now absolutely converted.
With the expression of my respect
your grateful and devoted
C. G. Young.
1. For stationery letterhead printed, of 21 X 3o cm, see facsimile pl. 3. Jung lived with his wife and two fdles in the main building of the clinic Burghölzli, located east of the city of Zurich. See pl. 1. This letter was published in Young, Letters, flight. The.
2. Collection of small fonts for neuroses [Small collection of writings on the theory of neurosis], vol I, Vienna, 1906, G. W., I et V].
3. Gustav Aschaffenburg (1866-1944), professor of psychiatry and neurology at Heidelberg, then Halle and Cologne; from 1939 practitioner and teacher in Baltimore and Washington, U.S.A. His attack is contained in a speech he made the 27 may 1906 Congress of neurologists and psychiatrists in southwest Germany in Baden-Baden : "The relationship between sexual life and the appearance of nervous and mental diseases". Cf. Munich medical weekly, LIII, 3, 11 September 1906. Cf. Jones also, The life and work of Sigmund Freud, 3 flight., Paris, 1958- 1969 (henceforth abbreviated : Jones), II, p. 117.
4. This correspondence seems lost
5. See 19 J, n. 1.
6. About the psychology of dementia praecox, see 9 J, n. 1.
7. No doubt if the seamstress B. St., ibid [G. W., 3] § 198 sq.
8. Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), of 1898 at 1927 professor of psychiatry at the University of Zurich and director of the asylum Burghölzli, succeeding his master Forel. Formerly director of the asylum Rhei-nau (canton de Zurich) twelve years. Cf. Walser, Rheinau, p. 27 sq. One of the great pioneers of psychiatry, particularly of dementia praecox, he was the first to call "schizophrenia". See 272 J n. 7 on his important treatise. Under the direct influence of the psychoanalytic method, he gave important contributions to the understanding of autism and ambivalence. It might have been sensitive to the ideas of Freud 1901 already, Jung did when do a presentation on The Interpretation of Dreams to physicians Burghölzli. He pleaded his life against alcoholism. Its Textbook of Psychiatry [Manual of Psychiatry], Berlin, 1916, authority is still. See also 2.7*2 J n. 8.
7. X. 06.
IX, Berggasse 19.
Although honored colleague,
I am much pleased with your letter, and the news that Bleuler you converted me to express special thanks. That you extend not quite your appreciation of my psychology my views on the question of hysteria and sexuality, that I had long suspected based on your written; I do not, however, waive the expectation that over the years you approach me more than you can hold for now. You must have just learned of your beautiful analysis of a case of obsessional neurosis (1) knows how the sexual component to hide, and what it is capable, Once unveiled, to provide for the understanding and treatment. I continue to hope that this part of my discoveries will prove the most important.
I will not respond to the attack of Aschaffenburg, for reasons of principle, and also because of the lack of kindness which he personally testifies. I would judge naturally a little more severely than you. I do not find there that nonsense and ignorance more enviable state of things in which he wears his judgment. He continues to fight hypnosis, abandoned a decade, shows no understanding of the symbolism the simplest (see his note) (2), the meaning of which linguists and folklorists could enlighten, if he does not accept this lesson I. What drives, like so many other "authorities", is of course the tendency to repress the sexual, this factor annoying and frowned upon in polite society. Two worlds fighting there, and that little is held within life there will soon be no doubt as to who decline and those who will be victorious. Of course I expect myself to many battles yet, and considering my age (The), I can not believe I see the end. But my students, I hope, will present, and I also hope that those who manage, for the love of the truth, to overcome internal resistance, happy to count among my students and their thoughts extirperont remnants of hesitation. I do not know Aschaffenburg also, but after this test I designed a very poor opinion of him.
The book you advertise on dem. praecox is impatiently awaited me-ment. Let me say that work like yours and those of Bleuler give me satisfaction every time, necessary eventually anyway, for not being accomplished quite unheard work so hard in my life.
Your devoted and respectful colleague.
My "transfer" should completely fill the gap in the mechanism of healing (your personal report).
1. « Psychoanalyse und Assoziations experiment », [Psychoanalysis and association experience], G. W., 2, in particular § 666.
Burghölzli Zurich, 23. X. 1906
In the same letter I would send you back a reprint, which contains new research in psychoanalysis1. I do not think that you will view the "sexual" I will defend to excessively moderate. This is the same as the criticism will pounce.
As you observe, it is possible that my deference to your views are so far based on insufficient experience. But do not you think that we can perhaps consider a series of frontier points rather under the aspect of the other basic impulse, the hunger? Such as eating, suck (preponderance of hunger), kiss (preponderance of sexuality). Two complexes that exist simultaneously does not always have to blend psychologically, so that one always has the constellations of the other? Perhaps you also think that only; then is that I do not really understand, and in this case I would be quite of your opinion. Yet you feel frightened by the positivism of your presentation.
I need you to abreact, leaves you bored, experience that I experienced recently. I currently treats hysteria depending on your method. Serious case, a stu-dent Russian, sick for six years 2.
Thehe trauma : 3and-4and year. She sees her father hit his brother on the bare posterior. Strong impression. Forced to think then she defecated on the hands of his father. From 4and to 7and year, forces applied to defecate on his own feet, as follows : she sits on the floor with one foot tucked under her, Press the foot against the anus and tries to defecate and at the same time to prevent defecation. Thus retains several times until the stool 2 week! Do not know how it came to this strange story; she said it was quite impulsive, with a sense of voluptuous thrill. Later this has been replaced by a violent masturbation.
I would be extremely grateful if you could contact me in a few words your opinion on this story.
With the expression of my respect.
Your very devoted
C. G. Young.
1. Probably "Assoziation, Dreams and hysterical symptom ", [Association, dreams and hysterical symptom], Journal of psychology and neurology, VII, 1906, G, W., 2. Jung writes here Psychoanalyse, although it seems to prefer this time Psychoanalysis. Cf. also 7 J, n. 1.
2. Jung describes the case in "Die Freudsche Hysterietheorie" [The Freudian theory of hysteria] G.W., 4 § 53-58. This conference is made in Amsterdam 1907.
27. X. o6.
IX, Berggasse 19.
My thanks to the new analysis. You really have not been very successful, and also "transfer", primary evidence of the sexual nature of the drive force at all, You seem to have emerged with sufficient clarity. As for the "critical", we do not want to do that once critics have gained some experience own.
I have nothing in principle against the equal rights of other basic impulse, if she would announce its claims in a manner not psychoneurosis unrecognizable. What we can see in hysteria and obsessional neurosis leaves explain without difficulty by the anastomoses between the two, therefore the damage to the sexual component of the drive power. I recognize that these are issues "sensitive", that still require a thorough. I confine myself for the moment to draw attention to what appears grossly and obviously, on the role of sexuality. We may also find, in melancholia-mania, in psychosis, what we lack in hysteria and obsessional neurosis.
What is pleasing in your Russian, is that it is a student; uneducated people are currently far too little transparent for us. The history of defecation is nice that you bring, not without many similarities. You might remember this statement in my Theory of Sexuality (1), that the retention of feces is already operated by the infant as a source of pleasure acquisition. The 3and– 4and year is the most important period for sexual activity after pathogen (ibid). The view from the beaten brother awakens a memory trace back to the 1re– 2and year or a fantasy forward at this time. It is not uncommon for small children defile the hands of the wearer. Why did not he would be arrived? And therefore his memory awakens tenderness of his father in early childhood. Infantile fixation of the libido to the father, typical, as object choice; Self anal eroticism. Then chooses its position must be decomposed into its components, it seems also formed other components. Which? Anal excitement must then be recognizable in symptoms such instinctual strength, even in the character. Such people have some typical combinations of traits frequently. They are very ordinates, greedy and stops, traits that are somehow sublimation of anal eroticism (2). Cases like this, based on a perversion repressed, are especially beautiful to see through.
So you have bored me at all. I have great pleasure to receive your items, and am, with my college greetings most dedicated, your
1. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, 1905. Ed. franç. citée Paris, Gallimard, 1962, II : Infantile sexuality.
2. Cf. Character and anal eroticism, 1908 [Anal eroticism and nature], where these ideas are developed by Freud two years later. G.W., VII. See also 77 F, n. 6.
Burghölzli Zurich, 26. XI. 19o6.
In the same letter you will receive a reprint, a response to the conference Aschaffenburg (1). I arranged a little thing my subjective point of view, That is why you will perhaps not agree with everything. I hope I did not hurt you with it! In any case I wrote honest conviction. Moreover, I also pleaded your cause in Tübingen (2) the assem-bly of alienists, in the face of opposition overwritten health-, in wherein the Privy Hoche (3) distinguished himself by the stupidity of his arguments. Fortunately, the Gaupp (4) is then stored a little more on our side, assuming that at least something worth being examined.
I recently rescanned an obsessional neurosis in a German colleague - naturally again complexes sex up to the seventh year! After the first session already, disappearance of anxiety, However, that still shows a strong tendency to reappear, course only subsequent to trauma. I think it is extremely important for the therapeutic there already or not tic provisions and habits of thought already stereotyped (formatting cleavage *, by habit, all the unpleasant). As far as I've seen, the’ "Hysteria tumance deliv- ** "Usually responds poorly to the analysis.
It may interest you to know that Dr Frank (5), the former director of the insane asylum Münsterlingen, here also uses your analysis with great success and has created a great practice in a very short time. There is still a great connoisseur and practicing your method, D is ther Bezzola (6), médecin-chef du sanatorium lock hardware, canton de Thurgovie. Both agree to try your method is an event that opens up new avenues for neurological practice. They both spoke recently in this direction in Tübingen. This makes them both fun nonetheless (humanly) to allow you to depart on a few points. You see that your design made rapid progress in Switzerland. In Germany, however, it seems that the current generation must first destroy. It stifles the prejudices.
With expressing my respect, Your most devoted
1. "The theory of hysteria Freud; a response to the Aschaffenburg- burgsche criticism » [The Freudian theory of hysteria; a reply to the criticism of Aschaffenburg], Munich medical weekly, LIII, No. 47, 20 November 1906, G.W., 4.
2. Congress of the Association of Psychiatrists in southwestern Germany, 3-4 November 1906; see report in : International journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, flight. XXX, N.S. XVIII, Thehe March 1907, p. 185, with a quote from Jung.
3. Alfred Erich Hoche (1865-1943), professor of psychiatry at Freiburg im Breisgau; decided opponent of psychoanalysis.
5. Ludwig Frank ( 1863-1935), neurologue à Zurich, supporter of Forel. Cf. 17 J, n. 4.
6. Dumeng Bezzola (1868-1936), psychiatrist from the Grisons, one of the leaders of the anti-alcohol.
* And allemand : Secession. (N.d.T.)
** And allemand : « Habituation hysteria ". (N.d.T.)
Burghölzli Zurich, 4. XII. 1906
I must first of all express my sincere appreciation for what you do not want to have me in various parts of my "apology (1) ». If I allowed myself to certain restrictions, it was nothing to criticize your doctrine, but by political, As you have probably noticed. As you rightly say, I let the opponents of freedom replicate, in the conscious intention not to make too difficult revocation. It will be hard enough as it. If we attack the opponent as he really deserves, it does not follow that discord big misfortunes, which would that disadvantageous consequences. As already, found my critique too harsh. If I am happy with any part of what we can defend, this is simply because I can not defend so many things that I learned myself in the experience, and that, compared to your experience, is naturally very little. I'm just about to understand many of your assertions me and some are still inaccessible, by which I do not mean, understand me, you are wrong. I gradually learned to be cautious in disbelief as.
I saw enough that the opposition has its roots in the emotions, and I know no reason remedy in this.
If I underestimate seemingly therapeutic success of psychoanalysis (2), it is only against diplomatic; I make the following observations :
1. The bulk of the hysterical uneducated is unfit to psychoanalysis. I did here some bad experiences. In these cases hypnosis occasionally gives better results.
2. More psychoanalysis will know, more doctors devote themselves unfit and there will, of course a lot of bad experiences. It will then it to your account and the your science.
3. The concept of hysteria is still almost entirely inéclairci. It is still under the diagnosis of’ "Hysteria" countless cases of mild hebephrenia, and in those of the result is doubtful bad, I know from my own experience. (In some exceptions, it is true that the result was good temporarily.) Seen in a recent publication of the Heidelberg Clinic (3) how he reigns some clarity in this area : a CAS indubitable catatonia there was declared as a hysteria.
For these reasons I considered prudent not to rely too much on the therapeutic success, otherwise it will quickly gathered material suitable to show that the therapeutic outcome is very bad, that would hurt the theory also.
Personally, I am full of enthusiasm for your treatment and I know very well appreciate the excellent services. Generally, your education means to us, now already, an enormous increase in our knowledge and expression of a new era of infinite possibilities.
Your very devoted
1. Freud's letter has not been preserved.
2. Psychoanalysis, form of the word used in the Zurich group
3. Has not been identified.