14-04-1907 (about) Freud to Jung

22F

[env. 14 April 1907] (1)

Some theoretical views on paranoia

Fundamental fact about it : in a person f. (2) arises the desire for trade with man. He suffered repression and reappears in the following form : it says on the outside it has the desire, something she denies. (Or else : this trade took place nightly against his will. But this form is not the primary form.)

What happened in this kind of delivery and return characteristic of paranoia? An idea - the content of desire - arose and remained, even become aware of unconscious, but this idea was born within was thrown out, she returns as a perceived reality, against which the discharge can now again be exercised as opposition. The credit was denied to affect the desire, and on his return appears a contrary affect, hostile.

The projection must be explained. What is the condition for an internal process, investment of affect, is projected to the outside? A glance at the normal : our consciousness, originally, sees only two kinds of things. Outward, the perceptions (P), which in themselves are not invested with affect and have qualities; from the inside, she experienced " sentiments », they are exteriorizations impulses taking certain organs such as media; they are low-quality, however likely a strong quantitative investment. It is this quantity which has located within, This is qualitative and no afïect, outside.

There are naturally coarse patterns. All the pro-cess of representation, of thought, etc., are produced with contributions from both sides.

What we managed to end the meeting immediately P belief, what is produced is subjected to endopsychiquement the’ reality testing, that is a reduction to P, and tendency to discharge, which is directly against the qualities of feelings of displeasure.

The sexual drive is causing auto-erotic, she later attributed to memory representations of objects affect an investment, love object. A wishful fantasy like we admitted at the beginning should be considered as a libidinal object; it may 2a, now, undergo repression before becoming aware, this can happen in various ways (main characteristics of the various psychoneuroses). If the content of representations was screened at the end P, it3 can not be reached if its libidinal investment has been previously removed. It was then the character of a perception.

In paranoia, libido is withdrawn from the object; an inversion of this is the mourning, where the object is removed to libido.

That the object representation in lost investment, it is first rendered in the form of belief. The hostility towards the object4 which manifests itself in paranoia indicates that went libido. This hostility is the perception endogenous libidinal disinvestment. Given the relationship between compensation object cathexis and ego investment, it becomes probable that the investment removed the object is returned in the self, that is to say has become autoerotic. Also is it me paranoid overinvested - selfish, megalomaniac.

The opposite process we assumed here is shown by the anxiety hysteria. The hysteria in general is characterized by excess investment object. She is love extreme object, it even covers autoerotism first time fantasies object (seduction). It takes to be all that is a distant relation with the object normal, places even; where hysteria is linked instead (claustrophobia) as to the proximity of the beloved, unlike the instability, of the drive to nomadism [Wanderlust] of dementia praecox.

In anxiety hysteria occurs contrary to what we assumed for paranoia. External stimuli, of P so, are treated as internal processes, invested affect; simple verbal representation acts as a living house; ease to be scared. The simple object divestment in me - in the auto-erotic - are [also], as an organic process with transformation affects (in displeasure), in what is called hypochondria. It is only the use of this mechanism for giving discharge paranoia. The hypochondria is the paranoia in a relationship analogous to that anxiety neurosis, basis to purely somatic, with hysteria, that passes through the psychic. The hypochondria approaches often of paranoia, évolué paranoia, Paranoia is Mele.

Do not forget now that it is fully, in the psychoneuroses, a defense that failed. Defense in paranoia seems to fail most surely, ie d. libido search again its object, seeks to impose, and seeks after inversion displeasure to the object P became.

The fight back is more pronounced in paranoid than in other neuroses. The libidinal student performances became the rank of P hallucinations; what we observe in clinical, is this struggle secondary defense against libidinous fantasy, now attacking the psychic apparatus at one end which usually happens that reality.

Add that this process is as a rule part, c.à.d. it only affects one or other of the components of the object libidinal. During this process, any repressed libido is slowly changing into a belief; this origin in libido gives delirium sa force. Delirium is the original belief in the reality of libidinal.

Summary. The projection is a kind of repression (analogous to the conversion, etc.), in which the representation becomes conscious as perception, and the affect that it is detached and withdrawn assistant in my displeasure with inversion. That affect (libidinal investment) then seeks, end of the P, to impose new to me.

Paranoia could face more easily than other psychoneuroses by normal psychological processes.

As you can see, relationships outlined here between libidinal object and investments give me a formula for easily so particularly successful discharge that occurs in forms hallucinatory madness of the first (amentia). (Cf. an old analysis in Collection 5.)

Avec a cordial salute

Your Dr Freud.

Rogue who gives more than he.


1. On larger sheets, 28 X 22 cm, no header.

2. Undoubtedly abbreviation of "feminine", added in the space between the two words.

2 a. A transcription error here gave a mistranslation in the English edition, unfortunately it has been possible to correct in this last ("Because it is" for "it can") (Correction of W. Sauerland).

3. De là, at the end of paragraph, underlined in blue pencil (probably by Jung).

4. These words also highlighted.

5. Cf. 11 F, n. 5. The trial was included in the first volume, 1906, of the Collection of small fonts for neuroses.

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